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Mutation
Gene
Drug
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PMID
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 We searched and report mutations in the BRAF and N-ras genes in 22 out of 35 (63 percent) primary sporadic melanomas. ... The sequence analysis of exon 1 of the BRAF gene in our laboratory has shown that the sequence derived from NT_007914 is correct (Kumar et al., 2003). Due to the correctness of the latter, sequence numbering of codons and nucleotides after exon 1 are changed by +1 and +3, respectively.), one tandem CT1789-90TC base change represented a novel mutation and another mutation caused a G466R amino-acid change within the glycine-rich loop in the kinase domain. ... melanomas with BRAF/N-ras mutations showed a statistically significant decreased frequency of LOH on chromosome 9 compared with cases without mutations (mean fractional allelic loss (FAL)=0.29+/-0.23 vs 0.72+/-0.33; t-test, P=0.0001). ... Melanoma cases with BRAF/N-ras mutations were also associated with lower age at diagnosis than cases without mutations (mean age 80.38+/-7.24 vs 65.77+/-19.79 years; t-test, P=0.02). Our data suggest that the occurrence of BRAF/N-ras mutations compensate the requirement for the allelic loss at chromosome 9, which is one of the key events in melanoma.
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 Mutations in the BRAF and N-ras gene were found in 22 nevi (81%) from 16 individuals (94%). The predominant BRAF mutation T1799A (V600E) was detected in 18 nevi; 1 nevus had a novel A1781G (D594V) mutation in the same gene and 3 nevi had mutations in codon 61 of the N-ras gene. ... We hypothesize the dual effect of solar ultraviolet irradiation on melanoma, through mutagenesis and by increasing the number of melanocytic nevi, many of which carry a BRAF or N-ras mutation.
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 Mutations in the BRAF and N-ras gene were found in 22 nevi (81%) from 16 individuals (94%). The predominant BRAF mutation T1799A (V600E) was detected in 18 nevi; 1 nevus had a novel A1781G (D594V) mutation in the same gene and 3 nevi had mutations in codon 61 of the N-ras gene. ... We hypothesize the dual effect of solar ultraviolet irradiation on melanoma, through mutagenesis and by increasing the number of melanocytic nevi, many of which carry a BRAF or N-ras mutation.
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 Mutations in the BRAF and N-ras gene were found in 22 nevi (81%) from 16 individuals (94%). The predominant BRAF mutation T1799A (V600E) was detected in 18 nevi; 1 nevus had a novel A1781G (D594V) mutation in the same gene and 3 nevi had mutations in codon 61 of the N-ras gene. ... We hypothesize the dual effect of solar ultraviolet irradiation on melanoma, through mutagenesis and by increasing the number of melanocytic nevi, many of which carry a BRAF or N-ras mutation.
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 Mutations in the BRAF and N-ras gene were found in 22 nevi (81%) from 16 individuals (94%). The predominant BRAF mutation T1799A (V600E) was detected in 18 nevi; 1 nevus had a novel A1781G (D594V) mutation in the same gene and 3 nevi had mutations in codon 61 of the N-ras gene. ... We hypothesize the dual effect of solar ultraviolet irradiation on melanoma, through mutagenesis and by increasing the number of melanocytic nevi, many of which carry a BRAF or N-ras mutation.
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 PURPOSE: An activating mutation in exon 15 of the BRAF gene has been found in a high proportion of cutaneous melanomas and cutaneous nevi but not in uveal melanoma. ... Sequences from conjunctival melanomas were compared with the wild-type sequence of the BRAF gene. The presence or absence of the BRAF mutation was compared with the clinicopathological features. RESULTS: The T1799A (V600E) mutation was detected by sequencing in melanomas from 5 of 22 patients as well as in the positive control, a cutaneous melanoma cell line. In this small series, no statistically significant associations between the presence of the BRAF mutation and clinicopathological characteristics were detected, although tumors with this mutation tended to have a larger diameter and greater depth of invasion and to contain epithelioid cells.
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 PURPOSE: An activating mutation in exon 15 of the BRAF gene has been found in a high proportion of cutaneous melanomas and cutaneous nevi but not in uveal melanoma. ... Sequences from conjunctival melanomas were compared with the wild-type sequence of the BRAF gene. The presence or absence of the BRAF mutation was compared with the clinicopathological features. RESULTS: The T1799A (V600E) mutation was detected by sequencing in melanomas from 5 of 22 patients as well as in the positive control, a cutaneous melanoma cell line. In this small series, no statistically significant associations between the presence of the BRAF mutation and clinicopathological characteristics were detected, although tumors with this mutation tended to have a larger diameter and greater depth of invasion and to contain epithelioid cells. CONCLUSIONS: Others have demonstrated a BRAF T1799A-activating mutation in cutaneous but not uveal melanoma.
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 PURPOSE: An activating mutation in exon 15 of the BRAF gene has been found in a high proportion of cutaneous melanomas and cutaneous nevi but not in uveal melanoma. Conjunctival melanoma shows greater clinical similarity to cutaneous melanoma than does uveal melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the T1799A BRAF mutation found in cutaneous melanoma is also present in conjunctival melanoma. METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin sections obtained from glutaraldehyde or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded conjunctival melanomas. ... Sequences from conjunctival melanomas were compared with the wild-type sequence of the BRAF gene. The presence or absence of the BRAF mutation was compared with the clinicopathological features. RESULTS: The T1799A (V600E) mutation was detected by sequencing in melanomas from 5 of 22 patients as well as in the positive control, a cutaneous melanoma cell line. In this small series, no statistically significant associations between the presence of the BRAF mutation and clinicopathological characteristics were detected, although tumors with this mutation tended to have a larger diameter and greater depth of invasion and to contain epithelioid cells. CONCLUSIONS: Others have demonstrated a BRAF T1799A-activating mutation in cutaneous but not uveal melanoma.
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 PURPOSE: An activating mutation in exon 15 of the BRAF gene has been found in a high proportion of cutaneous melanomas and cutaneous nevi but not in uveal melanoma. Conjunctival melanoma shows greater clinical similarity to cutaneous melanoma than does uveal melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the T1799A BRAF mutation found in cutaneous melanoma is also present in conjunctival melanoma. METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin sections obtained from glutaraldehyde or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded conjunctival melanomas. ... Sequences from conjunctival melanomas were compared with the wild-type sequence of the BRAF gene. The presence or absence of the BRAF mutation was compared with the clinicopathological features. RESULTS: The T1799A (V600E) mutation was detected by sequencing in melanomas from 5 of 22 patients as well as in the positive control, a cutaneous melanoma cell line. In this small series, no statistically significant associations between the presence of the BRAF mutation and clinicopathological characteristics were detected, although tumors with this mutation tended to have a larger diameter and greater depth of invasion and to contain epithelioid cells. CONCLUSIONS: Others have demonstrated a BRAF T1799A-activating mutation in cutaneous but not uveal melanoma.
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 Mutations in the BRAF gene have been described in the majority of cutaneous melanomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma and to a lesser extent in other cancers. The predominant mutation reported is a single transversion in exon 15 (T1799A).
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 Mutations in the BRAF gene have been described in the majority of cutaneous melanomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma and to a lesser extent in other cancers. The predominant mutation reported is a single transversion in exon 15 (T1799A).
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 BACKGROUND: According to the international criteria for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) diagnostics, cancer patients with a family history or early onset of colorectal tumours showing high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) should receive genetic counselling and be offered testing for germline mutations in DNA repair genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2. Recently, an oncogenic V600E hotspot mutation within BRAF, a kinase encoding gene from the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway, has been found to be associated with sporadic MSI-H colon cancer, but its association with HNPCC remains to be further clarified. METHODS: BRAF-V600E mutations were analysed by automatic sequencing in colorectal cancers from 206 sporadic cases with MSI-H and 111 HNPCC cases with known germline mutations in MLH1 and MSH2. In addition, 45 HNPCC cases showing abnormal immunostaining for MSH2 were also analysed. RESULTS: The BRAF-V600E hotspot mutation was found in 40% (82/206) of the sporadic MSI-H tumours analysed but in none of the 111 tested HNPCC tumours or in the 45 cases showing abnormal MSH2 immunostaining. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of the V600E mutation in a colorectal MSI-H tumour argues against the presence of a germline mutation in either the MLH1 or MSH2 gene. Therefore, screening of these mismatch repair (MMR) genes can be avoided in cases positive for V600E if no other significant evidence, such as fulfilment of the strict Amsterdam criteria, suggests MMR associated HNPCC. In this context, mutation analysis of the BRAF hotspot is a reliable, fast, and low cost strategy which simplifies genetic testing for HNPCC.
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 The BRAF gene has been shown to be a major target for mutations in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (36-69%), which forms almost all of the over 2000 cases of thyroid carcinoma that have occurred in Chernobyl. BRAF is activated by point mutation, and were it to occur at a high frequency in Chernobyl-related tumors, it would challenge the dominant role of double-strand breaks in radiation-induced PTC. In a previous study, we detected the BRAF V600E mutation in 46% (23 of 50) of sporadic adult PTC. Using the same methodology, we have analyzed 34 post-Chernobyl PTC and detected RET/PTC rearrangements in 14 (41%) and BRAF mutations (V600E) in four (12%). These two alterations did not coexist in any PTCs.
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 The BRAF gene has been shown to be a major target for mutations in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) (36-69%), which forms almost all of the over 2000 cases of thyroid carcinoma that have occurred in Chernobyl. BRAF is activated by point mutation, and were it to occur at a high frequency in Chernobyl-related tumors, it would challenge the dominant role of double-strand breaks in radiation-induced PTC. In a previous study, we detected the BRAF V600E mutation in 46% (23 of 50) of sporadic adult PTC. Using the same methodology, we have analyzed 34 post-Chernobyl PTC and detected RET/PTC rearrangements in 14 (41%) and BRAF mutations (V600E) in four (12%). These two alterations did not coexist in any PTCs. The mean age at exposure of patients with PTC showing BRAF mutation was higher than that of patients with tumors without BRAF mutation irrespective of their RET status.
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 We studied global gene expression in three melanoma cell lines with the most common and potent V600E mutation in the B-RAF gene-four cell lines with a common Q61R mutation in the N-RAS gene and three cell lines with no mutations using human HG-U133A 2.0 micro-arrays with 22 277 transcripts. Data analysis using stringent criteria revealed several upregulated and downregulated genes in cell lines with B-RAF and N-RAS mutations compared with cell lines without mutations. ... Our results, though carried on cell lines, provide a novel insight into the effect of mutations in the B-RAF and N-RAS genes on global gene expression in melanoma and highlight the complexity of mechanisms involved in tumour initiation and maintenance.
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 We studied global gene expression in three melanoma cell lines with the most common and potent V600E mutation in the B-RAF gene-four cell lines with a common Q61R mutation in the N-RAS gene and three cell lines with no mutations using human HG-U133A 2.0 micro-arrays with 22 277 transcripts. Data analysis using stringent criteria revealed several upregulated and downregulated genes in cell lines with B-RAF and N-RAS mutations compared with cell lines without mutations. ... Expression of a large number of genes, that encode members or regulators of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathways or are involved in metastasis or invasion, was affected in cell lines with mutations in B-RAF and N-RAS. ... Our results, though carried on cell lines, provide a novel insight into the effect of mutations in the B-RAF and N-RAS genes on global gene expression in melanoma and highlight the complexity of mechanisms involved in tumour initiation and maintenance.
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 Recently, it was shown that the oncogenic activation of BRAF, a member of the RAS/RAF family of kinases, by the V600E mutation is characteristic for sporadic colon tumors with microsatellite instability. Further, it was shown to associate with the silencing of the mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH1 by hypermethylation. Moreover, BRAF mutations proved to be absent in tumors from hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC) families with germline mutations in the MMR genes MLH1 and MSH2. ... In order to further support this hypothesis, we have extended the analysis of the BRAF gene to a different subset of HNPCC families without germline mutations in MLH1 and MSH2. BRAF-V600E mutations were analysed by automatic sequencing in 38 tumors from HNPCC families with germline mutations in the MSH6 gene and also in HNPCC (suspected) families that do not have mutations in the MMR genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. All patients belong to different families. ... Further, no mutations of BRAF were found in tumors from 23 MMR-negative families, from which 13 fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria (HNPCC) and 10 were suspected for HNPCC as they were positive for the Bethesda criteria. Overall, our data reinforce the concept that BRAF is not involved in the colorectal tumorigenesis of HNPCC. The detection of a positive BRAF-V600E mutation in a colorectal cancer suggests a sporadic origin of the disease and the absence of germline alterations of MLH1, MSH2 and also of MSH6.
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 Recently, it was shown that the oncogenic activation of BRAF, a member of the RAS/RAF family of kinases, by the V600E mutation is characteristic for sporadic colon tumors with microsatellite instability. Further, it was shown to associate with the silencing of the mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH1 by hypermethylation. Moreover, BRAF mutations proved to be absent in tumors from hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC) families with germline mutations in the MMR genes MLH1 and MSH2. ... In order to further support this hypothesis, we have extended the analysis of the BRAF gene to a different subset of HNPCC families without germline mutations in MLH1 and MSH2. BRAF-V600E mutations were analysed by automatic sequencing in 38 tumors from HNPCC families with germline mutations in the MSH6 gene and also in HNPCC (suspected) families that do not have mutations in the MMR genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. All patients belong to different families. ... Further, no mutations of BRAF were found in tumors from 23 MMR-negative families, from which 13 fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria (HNPCC) and 10 were suspected for HNPCC as they were positive for the Bethesda criteria. Overall, our data reinforce the concept that BRAF is not involved in the colorectal tumorigenesis of HNPCC. The detection of a positive BRAF-V600E mutation in a colorectal cancer suggests a sporadic origin of the disease and the absence of germline alterations of MLH1, MSH2 and also of MSH6.
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 Both mutations were located in the hotspot residue 600 (V600E) at exon 15, which leads to constitutive B-RAF kinase activity. These data suggest that activating mutations of B-RAF are not a frequent event in gliomas; nevertheless, when present they are associated with high-grade malignant lesions.
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 The analysis of B-RAF hotspot regions, exons 11 and 15, showed presence of B-RAF mutations in only 2 out of 34 (6%) glioblastomas, and absence in the remaining histological types. Both mutations were located in the hotspot residue 600 (V600E) at exon 15, which leads to constitutive B-RAF kinase activity. These data suggest that activating mutations of B-RAF are not a frequent event in gliomas; nevertheless, when present they are associated with high-grade malignant lesions.
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