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 The in vivo interaction with the EGFr/p185c-neu heterodimer of several signal transduction proteins, including phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-gamma 1), the p85 subunit of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase, the ras GTPase activating protein, SHC, NCK, p72RAF, and the tyrosine phosphatase SHPTP2, was measured by coimmunoprecipitation. The binding of these signaling proteins to a complex composed of EGFr and a kinase-inactive form of p185 (p185K757M) was not impaired, even though the mitogenic and transformation activity of this complex had been abrogated. In addition, the EGF-induced phosphorylation of GAP, p85, and PLC-gamma 1 did not correlate with the dominant-negative action of p185K757M on EGFr function. Thus, substrate association and phosphorylation do not correlate stringently with the mitogenic and transforming activity of this receptor complex, suggesting additional pathways or mechanisms vital to EGFr/p185c-neu heterodimeric signaling.
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 We characterized nine NSCLC cell lines (three isolated from patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and six isolated from patients with adenocarcinoma) for their in vitro sensitivity to gefitinib. Of these, only H3255 (EGFR(L858R)) and H1666 (EGFR(WT)) are sensitive to gefitinib with IC(50) values of 40 nmol/L and 2 micromol/L, respectively. ... Although EGFR and AKT are constitutively phosphorylated in H3255, H1666, and H441 cell lines, AKT is completely inhibited by gefitinib treatment only in the H3255 cell line. These findings further characterize a mechanism by which gefitinib treatment of NSCLC harboring EGFR(L858R) leads to a dramatic response to gefitinib.
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 We characterized nine NSCLC cell lines (three isolated from patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and six isolated from patients with adenocarcinoma) for their in vitro sensitivity to gefitinib. Of these, only H3255 (EGFR(L858R)) and H1666 (EGFR(WT)) are sensitive to gefitinib with IC(50) values of 40 nmol/L and 2 micromol/L, respectively. ... Although EGFR and AKT are constitutively phosphorylated in H3255, H1666, and H441 cell lines, AKT is completely inhibited by gefitinib treatment only in the H3255 cell line. These findings further characterize a mechanism by which gefitinib treatment of NSCLC harboring EGFR(L858R) leads to a dramatic response to gefitinib.
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 We characterized nine NSCLC cell lines (three isolated from patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and six isolated from patients with adenocarcinoma) for their in vitro sensitivity to gefitinib. Of these, only H3255 (EGFR(L858R)) and H1666 (EGFR(WT)) are sensitive to gefitinib with IC(50) values of 40 nmol/L and 2 micromol/L, respectively. ... Although EGFR and AKT are constitutively phosphorylated in H3255, H1666, and H441 cell lines, AKT is completely inhibited by gefitinib treatment only in the H3255 cell line. These findings further characterize a mechanism by which gefitinib treatment of NSCLC harboring EGFR(L858R) leads to a dramatic response to gefitinib.
 RESULTS: Seventeen patients (18.9%; 95% CI, 10.8 to 27.0) harbored EGFR mutations. These mutations include deletions in exon 19 in seven patients, L858R in six patients, G719A in three patients, and a novel A859T in one patient. Response rate in patients with EGFR mutation was 64.7% (11 of 17 patients; 95% CI, 42.0 to 87.4), in contrast to 13.7% (10 of 73 patients; 95% CI, 5.8 to 21.6) in patients without mutation (P < .001). ... CONCLUSION: Our data further support the importance of EGFR mutation with regard to gefitinib sensitivity. In addition to its predictive role, EGFR mutation confers significant survival benefits on NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib.
 RESULTS: Seventeen patients (18.9%; 95% CI, 10.8 to 27.0) harbored EGFR mutations. These mutations include deletions in exon 19 in seven patients, L858R in six patients, G719A in three patients, and a novel A859T in one patient. Response rate in patients with EGFR mutation was 64.7% (11 of 17 patients; 95% CI, 42.0 to 87.4), in contrast to 13.7% (10 of 73 patients; 95% CI, 5.8 to 21.6) in patients without mutation (P < .001). ... CONCLUSION: Our data further support the importance of EGFR mutation with regard to gefitinib sensitivity. In addition to its predictive role, EGFR mutation confers significant survival benefits on NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib.
 ErbB-3 mediates phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in gefitinib-sensitive non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Therapies that target the EGF receptor (EGFR), such as gefitinib (IRESSA), are effective in a subset of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The differences in intracellular signaling networks between gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant NSCLCs remain poorly understood. ... We observe that PI3K associates with ErbB-3 exclusively in gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines. gefitinib dissociates this complex, thereby linking EGFR inhibition to decreased Akt activity. ... In fact, abundant ErbB-3 expression is detected only in gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines. Two gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines with endogenous distinct activating EGFR mutations (L858R and Del747-749), frequently observed in NSCLC patients who respond to gefitinib, also use ErbB-3 to couple to PI3K.
 Acquired resistance of lung adenocarcinomas to gefitinib or erlotinib is associated with a second mutation in the EGFR kinase domain. BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinomas from patients who respond to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) or erlotinib (Tarceva) usually harbor somatic gain-of-function mutations in exons encoding the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We show that in two of five patients with acquired resistance to gefitinib or erlotinib, progressing tumors contain, in addition to a primary drug-sensitive mutation in EGFR, a secondary mutation in exon 20, which leads to substitution of methionine for threonine at position 790 (T790M) in the kinase domain. Tumor cells from a sixth patient with a drug-sensitive EGFR mutation whose tumor progressed on adjuvant gefitinib after complete resection also contained the T790M mutation. Biochemical analyses of transfected cells and growth inhibition studies with lung cancer cell lines demonstrate that the T790M mutation confers resistance to EGFR mutants usually sensitive to either gefitinib or erlotinib. Interestingly, a mutation analogous to T790M has been observed in other kinases with acquired resistance to another kinase inhibitor, imatinib (Gleevec). CONCLUSION: In patients with tumors bearing gefitinib- or erlotinib-sensitive EGFR mutations, resistant subclones containing an additional EGFR mutation emerge in the presence of drug.
 Acquired resistance of lung adenocarcinomas to gefitinib or erlotinib is associated with a second mutation in the EGFR kinase domain. BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinomas from patients who respond to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) or erlotinib (Tarceva) usually harbor somatic gain-of-function mutations in exons encoding the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We show that in two of five patients with acquired resistance to gefitinib or erlotinib, progressing tumors contain, in addition to a primary drug-sensitive mutation in EGFR, a secondary mutation in exon 20, which leads to substitution of methionine for threonine at position 790 (T790M) in the kinase domain. Tumor cells from a sixth patient with a drug-sensitive EGFR mutation whose tumor progressed on adjuvant gefitinib after complete resection also contained the T790M mutation. Biochemical analyses of transfected cells and growth inhibition studies with lung cancer cell lines demonstrate that the T790M mutation confers resistance to EGFR mutants usually sensitive to either gefitinib or erlotinib. Interestingly, a mutation analogous to T790M has been observed in other kinases with acquired resistance to another kinase inhibitor, imatinib (Gleevec). CONCLUSION: In patients with tumors bearing gefitinib- or erlotinib-sensitive EGFR mutations, resistant subclones containing an additional EGFR mutation emerge in the presence of drug. This observation should help guide the search for more effective therapy against a specific subset of lung cancers.
 EGFR mutations were significantly more prevalent in females, adenocarcinoma, and never-smokers. gefitinib treatment resulted in tumor shrinkage and/or CEA decrease to less than half of the baseline level in 26 patients, tumor growth and/or CEA elevation in 24 patients, and gefitinib effect was not assessable in nine patients. Female, never-smoking patients with adenocarcinoma tended to respond better to gefitinib treatment. gefitinib was effective in 24 of 29 patients with EGFR mutations, compared with two of 21 patients without mutations (P < .0001). Of note, del746-750 might be superior to L858R mutations for prediction of gefitinib response. Patients with EGFR mutations survived for a longer period than those without the mutations after initiation of gefitinib treatment (P = .0053). CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations were a good predictor of clinical benefit of gefitinib in this setting.
 EGFR Mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients: genotyping analysis using LightCycler. PURPOSE: Recently, somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene were found in approximately 25% of Japanese lung cancer patients. These EGFR mutations are reported to be correlated with clinical response to gefitinib therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have genotyped EGFR mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients, including 102 surgically treated lung cancer cases from Nagoya City University Hospital and 16 gefitinib-treated lung cancer cases from Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center. The presence or absence of three common EGFR mutations were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR with mutation-specific sensor and anchor probes. RESULTS: In exon 21, EGFR mutations (CTG --> CGG; L858R) were found from 8 of 102 patients from Nagoya and 1 of 16 from Kinki. ... The L858R mutation was significantly correlated with gender (women versus men, P < 0.0001), Brinkman index (600 < or = versus 600, P = 0.001), pathologic subtypes (adenocarcinoma versus nonadenocarcinoma, P = 0.007), and differentiation status of the lung cancers (well versus moderately or poorly, P = 0.0439), whereas the deletion mutants were not. EGFR gene status, including the type of EGFR somatic mutation, was correlated with sensitivity to gefitinib therapy. For example, some of our gefitinib-responsive patients had L858R or deletion type 1a mutations. On the other hand, one of our gefitinib-resistant patients had a G719S mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Using the LightCycler PCR assay, the EGFR L858R mutation status might correlate with gender, pathologic subtypes, and gefitinib sensitivity of lung cancers. However, further genotyping studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms of EGFR mutations for the sensitivity or resistance of gefitinib therapy for the lung cancer.
 EGFR Mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients: genotyping analysis using LightCycler. PURPOSE: Recently, somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene were found in approximately 25% of Japanese lung cancer patients. These EGFR mutations are reported to be correlated with clinical response to gefitinib therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have genotyped EGFR mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients, including 102 surgically treated lung cancer cases from Nagoya City University Hospital and 16 gefitinib-treated lung cancer cases from Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center. The presence or absence of three common EGFR mutations were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR with mutation-specific sensor and anchor probes. RESULTS: In exon 21, EGFR mutations (CTG --> CGG; L858R) were found from 8 of 102 patients from Nagoya and 1 of 16 from Kinki. ... The L858R mutation was significantly correlated with gender (women versus men, P < 0.0001), Brinkman index (600 < or = versus 600, P = 0.001), pathologic subtypes (adenocarcinoma versus nonadenocarcinoma, P = 0.007), and differentiation status of the lung cancers (well versus moderately or poorly, P = 0.0439), whereas the deletion mutants were not. EGFR gene status, including the type of EGFR somatic mutation, was correlated with sensitivity to gefitinib therapy. For example, some of our gefitinib-responsive patients had L858R or deletion type 1a mutations. On the other hand, one of our gefitinib-resistant patients had a G719S mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Using the LightCycler PCR assay, the EGFR L858R mutation status might correlate with gender, pathologic subtypes, and gefitinib sensitivity of lung cancers. However, further genotyping studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms of EGFR mutations for the sensitivity or resistance of gefitinib therapy for the lung cancer.
 EGFR Mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients: genotyping analysis using LightCycler. PURPOSE: Recently, somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene were found in approximately 25% of Japanese lung cancer patients. These EGFR mutations are reported to be correlated with clinical response to gefitinib therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have genotyped EGFR mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients, including 102 surgically treated lung cancer cases from Nagoya City University Hospital and 16 gefitinib-treated lung cancer cases from Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center. The presence or absence of three common EGFR mutations were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR with mutation-specific sensor and anchor probes. RESULTS: In exon 21, EGFR mutations (CTG --> CGG; L858R) were found from 8 of 102 patients from Nagoya and 1 of 16 from Kinki. ... The L858R mutation was significantly correlated with gender (women versus men, P < 0.0001), Brinkman index (600 < or = versus 600, P = 0.001), pathologic subtypes (adenocarcinoma versus nonadenocarcinoma, P = 0.007), and differentiation status of the lung cancers (well versus moderately or poorly, P = 0.0439), whereas the deletion mutants were not. EGFR gene status, including the type of EGFR somatic mutation, was correlated with sensitivity to gefitinib therapy. For example, some of our gefitinib-responsive patients had L858R or deletion type 1a mutations. On the other hand, one of our gefitinib-resistant patients had a G719S mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Using the LightCycler PCR assay, the EGFR L858R mutation status might correlate with gender, pathologic subtypes, and gefitinib sensitivity of lung cancers. However, further genotyping studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms of EGFR mutations for the sensitivity or resistance of gefitinib therapy for the lung cancer.
 EGFR Mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients: genotyping analysis using LightCycler. PURPOSE: Recently, somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene were found in approximately 25% of Japanese lung cancer patients. These EGFR mutations are reported to be correlated with clinical response to gefitinib therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have genotyped EGFR mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients, including 102 surgically treated lung cancer cases from Nagoya City University Hospital and 16 gefitinib-treated lung cancer cases from Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center. The presence or absence of three common EGFR mutations were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR with mutation-specific sensor and anchor probes. RESULTS: In exon 21, EGFR mutations (CTG --> CGG; L858R) were found from 8 of 102 patients from Nagoya and 1 of 16 from Kinki. ... The L858R mutation was significantly correlated with gender (women versus men, P < 0.0001), Brinkman index (600 < or = versus 600, P = 0.001), pathologic subtypes (adenocarcinoma versus nonadenocarcinoma, P = 0.007), and differentiation status of the lung cancers (well versus moderately or poorly, P = 0.0439), whereas the deletion mutants were not. EGFR gene status, including the type of EGFR somatic mutation, was correlated with sensitivity to gefitinib therapy. For example, some of our gefitinib-responsive patients had L858R or deletion type 1a mutations. On the other hand, one of our gefitinib-resistant patients had a G719S mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Using the LightCycler PCR assay, the EGFR L858R mutation status might correlate with gender, pathologic subtypes, and gefitinib sensitivity of lung cancers. However, further genotyping studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms of EGFR mutations for the sensitivity or resistance of gefitinib therapy for the lung cancer.
 Irreversible inhibitors of the EGF receptor may circumvent acquired resistance to gefitinib. Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with activating mutations in the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) demonstrate dramatic, but transient, responses to the reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva). Some recurrent tumors have a common secondary mutation in the EGFR kinase domain, T790M, conferring drug resistance, but in other cases the mechanism underlying acquired resistance is unknown. In studying multiple sites of recurrent NSCLCs, we detected T790M in only a small percentage of tumor cells. To identify additional mechanisms of acquired resistance to gefitinib, we used NSCLC cells harboring an activating EGFR mutation to generate multiple resistant clones in vitro. ... Although gefitinib-resistant clones are cross-resistant to related anilinoquinazolines, they demonstrate sensitivity to a class of irreversible inhibitors of EGFR. These inhibitors also show effective inhibition of signaling by T790M-mutant EGFR and killing of NSCLC cells with the T790M mutation. Both mechanisms of gefitinib resistance are therefore circumvented by irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Our findings suggest that one of these, HKI-272, may prove highly effective in the treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLCs, including tumors that have become resistant to gefitinib or erlotinib.
 Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with activating mutations in the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) demonstrate dramatic, but transient, responses to the reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva). Some recurrent tumors have a common secondary mutation in the EGFR kinase domain, T790M, conferring drug resistance, but in other cases the mechanism underlying acquired resistance is unknown. In studying multiple sites of recurrent NSCLCs, we detected T790M in only a small percentage of tumor cells. To identify additional mechanisms of acquired resistance to gefitinib, we used NSCLC cells harboring an activating EGFR mutation to generate multiple resistant clones in vitro. ... Although gefitinib-resistant clones are cross-resistant to related anilinoquinazolines, they demonstrate sensitivity to a class of irreversible inhibitors of EGFR. These inhibitors also show effective inhibition of signaling by T790M-mutant EGFR and killing of NSCLC cells with the T790M mutation. Our findings suggest that one of these, HKI-272, may prove highly effective in the treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLCs, including tumors that have become resistant to gefitinib or erlotinib.
 Pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to analyze the allelic pattern and copy number of EGFR. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (59%) had EGFR mutations; 20 patients had deletional mutations in exon 19, 17 patients had missense mutations (L858R) in exon 21, and two patients had missense mutations (G719S or G719C) in exon 18. ... High EGFR copy numbers (> or = 6/cell) were caused by selective amplification of mutant alleles. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations and increased copy numbers were significantly associated with better clinical outcome in gefitinib-treated NSCLC patients.
 Pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to analyze the allelic pattern and copy number of EGFR. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (59%) had EGFR mutations; 20 patients had deletional mutations in exon 19, 17 patients had missense mutations (L858R) in exon 21, and two patients had missense mutations (G719S or G719C) in exon 18. ... High EGFR copy numbers (> or = 6/cell) were caused by selective amplification of mutant alleles. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations and increased copy numbers were significantly associated with better clinical outcome in gefitinib-treated NSCLC patients.
 Pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to analyze the allelic pattern and copy number of EGFR. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (59%) had EGFR mutations; 20 patients had deletional mutations in exon 19, 17 patients had missense mutations (L858R) in exon 21, and two patients had missense mutations (G719S or G719C) in exon 18. ... High EGFR copy numbers (> or = 6/cell) were caused by selective amplification of mutant alleles. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations and increased copy numbers were significantly associated with better clinical outcome in gefitinib-treated NSCLC patients.
 EGFR and erbB2 mutation status in Japanese lung cancer patients. Much evidence has accumulated that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its family members are strongly implicated in the development and progression of lung cancers. Somatic mutations of the EGFR gene were found in about 25-40% of Japanese lung cancer patients. More recently, erbB2 mutations are found in about 4% of European-derived lung cancer patients. ... We have also investigated erbB2 mutation status in 27 surgically treated NSCLC cases followed by treatment with gefitinib from Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center. EGFR mutations (CTG-->CGG; L858R) were found from 14 of 95 lung cancer patients. ... Total EGFR mutations were present in 35 patients (36.8%). These mutation statuses were significantly correlated with gender (women 73.3% vs. men 20%, p < 0.0001), smoking status (never smoker 69.4% vs. smoker 16.9%, p < 0.0001), pathologic subtypes (adenocarcinoma 45.1% vs. nonadenocarcinoma 12.5%, p = 0.0089) and differentiation status of the lung cancers (well 51% vs. moderately or poorly 18.4%, p = 0.0021). ... The EGFR mutation status might correlate with the clinicopathologic features related to good response to gefitinib, such as gender, smoking history and pathologic subtypes of lung cancers. However, erbB2 mutation is rare from Japanese lung cancer and is of limited value for molecular target therapy.
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